Ahvaz

AHVAZ CITY:

 

The township of Ahvaz is situated in the central portion of the province and has a warm and humid climate. Ahvaz is the center and largest city of the province and is located 874 km. from Tehran. In ancient times it was called “Hormozd Ardeshir” and then “Soq-ol-Ahvaz”. Later on it was known as “Naseri”. Some historians have mentioned it as “Algeenis”.
There is a strong possibility that the city of Ahvaz is located on the site of the old city of “Taryana”. Ardeshir Sassanid I rebuilt Taryana and named it “Hormozd Ardeshir”. During his reign and that of his successors, the city prospered, and instead of Susa became the capital of “Suziana” (Khuzestan). At the time that the Arabs gained control of Suziana, Hormozd Ardeshir was renamed to Soq-ol-Ahvaz, which means the market of Khuzis or Hoories.
During the period of Omavi and Abbasides Caliphs, Ahvaz city flourished and became the center for the cultivation of sugar-cane. But at the end of the 3rd century A.H. due to upheavals of Saheb-ol-Zanj it witnessed a decline. Later on efforts were put for recapturing its fame, but in the mid 9th century A.H., the destruction of its large dam further more intensified the decline of the city from the former position that it was used to enjoy.
The construction of the Suez Canal, improved trade and shipping on Karoon River, and reformation of Bandar-e-Naseri as a port during the Qajar era, once again caused flourishing of Ahvaz, and its name was changed to Naseriyeh. During Pahlavi period, the city was re-gained its old name, i.e., ‘Ahvaz’. At present it plays an important role regarding the cultural, economical and industrial fields in Iran as well as being one of the highly populated areas of the province.

 

Choqazanbil Temple (Ziggurat), Shoosh

Choqazanbil is situated at a distance of 45 km. south east of Shoosh, and is the only remnant of an ancient city, that was constructed approximately in 1300 B.C. This city which was at the vicinity of 2 km. from Dez River was known as “Ontashgal”. The same is a reminder of the new Elamit civilization. It was surrounded by three interconnected sun brick made ramparts with the main entrance situated in the eastern side of the largest rampart.
The palaces and tombs of the Elamit monarchs are situated between the first and second ramparts. Between the second and the third ramparts, the remnants of the water supply and purification system for city is observed. The water purification system of Choqazanbil was to provide drinking water for citizens, and is obviously accounted as one of the most ancient water supply systems. In the center of the third rampart, the main temple (Ziggurat) is placed. This square shaped structure is constructed at the dimensions of 105×105 sq.m., along four main directions.

Khouzestan province is located in southwest of Iran and a strategicposition, which is adjacent to Iraq from west.
Ahvaz is the province center, the largest city of the province. Its area is about 8135.9 square km, equal to 12.78 percent of total area of the province.

Also it has population of 1,338,126 which is 31 percent of all the province population.

Climate
The weather of Ahvaz is dry and tropical. The mean temperature degree in warm weather period is about 31.2 which begins from may to early October until May.

Ahvaz resources and potentials.
1-    Rivers

-karoon: the longest and wateriest river of Iran which has divided Ahvaz to two parts.

2- Commerce and mineral and industrial centers
Industrially, Ahvaz is the vital center of the province. There are food industries, mineral, metallic, and chemical companies and workshops. Agricultural and industrial prosperity has caused commercial prosperity in this area. Various kinds of products such as  steel, iron sheet, pipe, profile, industrial pieces, artificial leather, vessels and thermal  transformers, iron equipment, oil and different kinds of  oil  products , hygienic products, agricultural productssuch as wheat, barely, vegetables, date, and fishing  products are being exported.
Vital industrial centers such as NIDC, Ramin and Shahid Modhej powerhouse, steel complex, industrial steel national group, pipe Mill Company, oil and gas companies, northeastern agricultural and industrial companies, dehkhoda and cane sidelong industries are located in ahvaz. Four industrial states companies are also in Ahvaz.

 

3-    Advanced training
Ahvaz metropolis is on a high ranked position because of large and creditable universities.
Ahvaz universities: Jondishapour, Shahid Chamran, payamenour, university of Applied Science and tenology, Ramin Agriculture and Natural resourcesuniversity, Oil university, Islamic Azad University  of Ahvaz,  Advanced training of region 6, Electricity industry junior college, Chamran college and its branches.

4-    Agriculture
Ahvaz  has got the first rank of animal husbandry in the province, and several complexes of fish farms, also the largest fish farm of Middle Eastern are working in Ahvaz.

 

Currently, there are seven bridges over the karun  river That connected The western and eastern parts of the city

These bridges are as follows:

1-    Black bridge or railway bridge

in 1919 concurrent with Iran’s throughout railroad establishment fist Ahvaz bridge was established on Karoun river , later due to black color of bridge’s body and piles it was renowned as black bridge or Polsiah its length is 1050 meters and its width is 6 meters , the bridge connects Imam harbor ( God compassion be upon him ) at southeast of province and custom’s harbor  and  Ahvaz railroad station via Khour abdolah outfall next to Persian golf and through this railroad Ahvaz railroad station connect to throughout railroad and finally connect to Torkman harbor at north , during word war two the bridge was used for transporting provender, forces and ordnances to Russian army and because of important effects on allied
victory , the bridge was called victory bridge .

 

2-    White bridge the first suspended bridge of Iran

less than fifty years of Brookline bridge accomplishment ( world’s first metallic bridge  )
bridge piles of world’s fourth suspension ridge was fixed , at present it is symbol of city’s beautiful . a German engineer along with his wife start to make the bridge and  successfully progressed the work up to mounting one of the bridge arcs but Englishmen who ruled on oil company at that period recaptured apparatuses which had delivered to bridge maker among them was a crane which lifted first bridge arc , this action cause for German engineer disease and his death , but after a short time his wife with very initial devices and using some barges
succeed to mount second arc on bridge structure and accomplished bridge finally at November 9th ,1936 the white bridge was inaugurated and utilized .

 

3-    Third bridge

Third bridge construction started at September 1967 and accomplished and utilized at February
1970 , this bridge connects Shahid Bandar square ( chahar shir ) and north Kianpars , the bridge
Set in the way of import goods from Imam harbor ( God compassion be upon him )and other places of country and the bridge play transit role , during bridge making and for connecting the bridge to Ahvaz –Tehran railroad , a railroad couple mounted on it which never have been used . and  in 2008 the railroad was eliminated , the bridge length is 496 meters and its width is 14.50 meters , it has 16 meshes , each mesh is 31 meters .

 

4-    Fourth bridge or Salman farsi bridge

In 1975 fourth bridge utilized , the bridge joins Salman farsi street , Takhti area , Saat
Square and Molavi square , the bridge length is 576 meters and its width is 16.71 meters .

 

5-    Fifth bridge

To decrease Ahvaz traffic load fifth bridge put into used at May 24th 1996 , this bridge connects Jomhouri square , south of Shriati street ( simetri) , Kout abdolah road , Daneshggah square
And Lashkar abad , the bridge length is 480 meters and its width is 30.70 meters .

 

6-    Sixth bridge or Steel bridge

Sixth bridge renowned as Sanaye-e foolad bridge put at south of Ahvaz city near Cheneibeh village on west bank of Karoun which connects Kout abdolah on east bank of Karoun , this bridge is main road of roll factories and Sanaye-e foolad  , these two industrial complexes are placed on two sides of Karoun river . the bridge construction operation  begun at June 2004 and completed at September 2007 . the bridge length is 740 meters and its width is 30.40 meters .

 

 

7-    Seventh bridge

Building of 490 meters bridge started from 1996 and the bridge building completed and utilized in
February 1998 , this bridge is very beautiful than other Ahvaz bridges which connects Aiatolah Behbahani  highway on east of Karoun to Tohid boulevard and Shahid Chamran street ( second square of Kianpars ) on west of Karoun , this bridge is very beautiful .

 


8-    Eighth bridge or cable bridge

To facilitate transporting and access to downtown and reducing Salman farsi and fifth bridges traffic loads , decision was made that a bridge to build on Karoun river between bridges four and five which First operations for workshop outfit and implementing operation were started since 2006 .

 

Moien altojar chamber

One valuable building of Ahvaz old structure is Haj Mohammad Taqi Moien altojar chamber , he was a merchant from Boushehr who lived at Ghajar dynasty era , he built it cooperate with Mohammad Hasan Khan Saad aldoleh , on the furthest part of Keivan street ( Kaveh) adjacent to Karoon river .
The Boushehrman merchant established a railroad along  riverside up to Haj Raies mosque location renown as Saracheh mosque ( Aiatolah Shafi-ee Mosque ) .  entering  merchandises from Khoramshahr were carried to Ahvaz harbor by ship then the goods were transferred to this place by wagons which were pulled by horses after that they were transferred to old Ahvaz
By using oil company railroad then the goods were being loaded on ship and transferred to a place which was called Shalili there was 6 miles distance to Shoushtar . trade ships disembarked
Themselves loads on Boushehrman merchant chamber from 1928 until 1953 . until recent years the chamber were used as single booth or as store , finally , due to a burning major parts of it Was demolished and its piles and roof were severely damaged .
Moien market renowned as Sabat like other traditional markets of Iran , had a vault form roof .

 

Ali ebne mahziar ahvazi Tomb
Ali ebne mahziar ahvazi (the 9th century ) was famous shiah religious jurisprudent , religious narrator and savant , he was one of devotees of Imam Javad (p.b.u.h.) , Imam Hadi (p.b.u.h.) And Imam Hasn Askari (p.b.u.h.) and learned Islamic jurisprudences of them and in some areas especially Ahvaz he was their agent , shiah savants accepted his religious narrates about holy Imams (p.b.u.h.) with complete confidence . Ali ebne mahziar was of Doraq (Shadegan) people  ,later he resided in Ahvaz . nevertheless he was born in Hendijan ( hendian) but because Hendijan was Doraq  city subarea he was introduced as Doraq resident . his father was Christian But at adolescence along with his father turned into Muslim . according with some stories he died at Imam Hasn Askari (p.b.u.h.) time . according with historical narratives , when
Abasi caliph mamoon commanded to transfer Imam Reza ( p.b.u.h.) to Khorasn from Madineh,
The Imam entered Ahvaz at year 822 and stayed at this city , few days , after that on Imam
( p.b.u.h.) settlement location , a mosque as Masjed Alreza  was built which Ali ebne mahziar had willed that his body buried in mentioned mosque , there is a salon , at west part adjoining to the grave, probably it is the mosque that mentioned before .

 

Ahvaz

Ahvaz has little to recommend it as a tourist destination in its own right being a sprawling industrial city centred on the nearby oilfields of Masjed-e Soleiman. However, there is a good international class hotel, a few mosques of note and its possible to enjoy a boat trip on the Karun River.

Of more interest to tourists are the two ancient cities of Shush (Susa), Shustar and the ziggarat at Choqa Zanbil.

Shush (Susa) & Choqa Zanbil

Now a small, pleasant town, Shush (Susa; biblical Shushan) dates from 4000 years BC and was an strategic Elamite city and a regional capital of the Achaemenid Empire. The town also thrived in the Seleucid, Parthian and Sassanian periods and was an important center of the Christian faith in the 4th century. The city was gradually abandoned during the Mongol invasions.

The ruins of ancient city site (small entrance fee) lie to the south of the modern town. At the entrance is the Chateau de Morgan, a fortress built to defend French archeologists working on the site at the turn of the twentienth century. The ruins of the ancient citadel include a bare 1 foot high (30cm) wall of the Palace of Darius dating from 521 BC and two huge stones from the base of the royal apadana (reception hall).

Shush’s other main attraction is the Tomb of Daniel, the supposed final remains of the biblical, probably mythical, Daniel, an official in the service of King Darius (522-486BC). Ancient Shush, known as Susa, was also the birthplace of Esther – the biblical saviour of the Jews in the time of their captivity in 6th century BC. The town prospered as a Jewish pilgrimage site for over a thousand years throughout the first millenium until the arrival of the Mongols in the thirteenth century. The tomb visitors see today was built in 1871.

 

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