Former capital of Iran and major industrial center.

Isfahan is located in west central Iran along both banks of the Zayandeh River. Its origins date back to the Achaemenid era (c. 550–330 b.c.e.), but it did not emerge as an important city until 1150, when Toghril Beg, founder of the Seljuk dynasty, chose it as his capital. The city’s golden age coincided with its status as the capital of the Safavi dynasty (1598–1722). Shah Abbas I (r. 1587–1629) and several of his successors embellished the city with bridges, mosques, madrasehs, and palaces, many of which are extant and are considered among the finest examples of Islamic architecture. In 1722, an army of invading Afghans besieged Isfahan for several months before finally capturing and looting it and deposing the shah. These events ushered in more than two decades of steady economic and political decline interspersed with several brutal massacres of prominent citizens of the city.

Isfahan at the beginning of the nineteenth century was no longer a major city; it had ceased to be Iran’s capital, and its population was only 25 percent of what it had been during the height of Safavi power. Its role as a regional commercial center recovered during the reign of Nasir ed-Din Shah Qajar (1848–1896). In the 1920s entrepreneurs began developing modern factories, especially textile mills, which by the early 1960s employed nearly 20,000 workers and produced one-half of Iran’s total output of textiles. The renewed prosperity stimulated greater and more diversified industrialization, and the city became the center of the country’s steel industry during the 1970s. Isfahan has experienced considerable immigration, growing at an average annual rate of 4 percent during the last seventy years of the twentieth century. In the 1996 census, its population had reached 1,266,000, making it the third-largest city in Iran. The city also remains the country’s premier tourist center, drawing thousands to see such famous Safavi-era architectural landmarks as the Meydan-e Imam, Masjid-e Imam, Masjid-e Shaykh Lotfollah, and the covered bazaar.

, also known as Esfahan, was once one of the largest cities in the world and it served as the capital of the Persian Empire in the 16th century. Even today the past glory of Isfahan can be seen in the Islamic architecture with many palaces, mosques, minarets and boulevards in the city. A UNESCO World Heritage Site, Esfahan’s Naghss-e Jahan Square is home to numerous beautiful Iranian and Islamic buildings and monuments. See also the old Shah Carvanserai that used to be the port of call for the many caravans on the ancient Silk Road.

Mosques & palaces. The most remarkable mosques in Isfahan are named Imam Mosque, SheikhLof Allah Mosque and Jame Mosque, the latter being the largest and the most magnificent mosque in Iran. The beautiful palaces in Isfahan are built in the 17th century. The Chechel Sotun Palace hosts paintings and a lovely garden for walks. Visit also the ancient Atashgah Temple which is located on the outskirts of the city and has breathtaking views over the historic city centre. The historic Bridge of Khaju is a popular attraction in Isfahan as well, and the large bazaar area offers excellent chances for shopping in Isfahan. Esfahan is a great place to buy traditional Persian rugs.
Isfahan is located on a plateau of the Zayandeh River at the foot of the Zagros Mountain in Central Iran, about 430 kilometers south of the capital Tehran. Isfahan has a dry continental climate with great seasonal variations: hot, dry summers from June to August and relatively cold winters with some snow from December to February. Weather in Isfahan is usually sunny. The most pleasant times to visit Isfahan are spring from March to May and autumns from September to November when the weather is warm, pleasant and ideal for sightseeing and outdoor activities.
Flights to Isfahan arrive in the Shadid Behesti Airport which serves both cheap domestic flights from the major cities in Iran and flights from the neighboring countries.

Isfahan has good train and bus connections from the major cities in Iran. Public transportation in Esfahan is offered by local buses. Due to the low fuel prices travelling by regular or shared taxis is a good option as well. Car rental in Isfahan is not the most convenient way of travelling due to the chaotic traffic culture in Iran.
Services & restrictions. There are many hotels in Isfahan and some of them are located in the beautiful old quarters of the city. Restaurants in Isfahan serve both Iranian specialties like chelo kebab and international delicacies. Alcohol is illegal in Iran, so Isfahan has quiet nightlife. Due to the Islamic culture, conservative dress is expected also from visitors and female visitors should cover their hair and body excluding hands and feet.
Safety. Isfahan is relatively safe destination where violent crime is rare. Keep an eye on your belongings and watch out for pickpockets in crowded places. Earthquakes are not rare in Iran. Due to the possibly unstable political situation in Iran, visitors should follow the media and instructions given by the authorities before entering Isfahan.

Tourist attractions of Isfahan:

Isfahan is an ancient city in the center of Iran located about 340 km south of Tehran. Isfahan is the capital of Isfahan Province and the Persians call it “Nesf-e-Jahan”, meaning “Half the World”. In terms of population, Isfahan is Iran’s third largest city after Tehran and Mashhad. Isfahan is located in a semi-desert region near the Zayandeh Rud River. Isfahan is considered as a popular tourist destination and a major cultural and economic center of Iran. The city enjoys a temperate climate and regular seasons.


Imam Square (Naqsh-e Jahan):

Before Isfahan was selected as Capital by the Safavid dynasty, a square called Naqsh-e Jahan (Image of the world) existed in the vicinity of Imam square. During the reign of Shah Abbas the Great, this square was enlarged to almost its present dimensions and the most famous historic buildings of Isfahan were constructed around this square. This square has an area of more than 85 thousand square. During the reign of Shah Abbas I and his successors, this square was an area where festivities, polo, dramatics and military parades took place. Two stone gates of the polo are embedded in the north and south of this square. The length of this great square is 500 meters from north to south, and its width about 150 meters from east to west. Most of the foreign tourists believe that Imam square is one of the greatest squares in the world. Naqsh-e Jahan Square has witnessed many historical memories of Iran during the past four centuries. Memories of the life of Shah Abbas the Great and his successors until the end of the Safavid era is associated with this great historical square.


Imam Mosque:

The construction of this mosque situated at the south side of Imam Square (Naqsh-e Jahan) started in 1020 A.H under the order of Shah Abbas I during the twenty-fourth year of his reign, and the decorations and extensions of the building were completed during the rule of his successors. The chief architect and the supervisor of the building were Ostad Ali Akbar Isfahani and Moheb Ali Beik. This mosque is a masterpiece of the 16th century from the viewpoint of architecture, tile work and stone carving. One of the interesting features of this mosque is the echo of sound in the center of the gigantic dome in the southern section. The height of this dome is 52 m and the minarets therein 48m; whereas the minarets at its portal in the Naqsh-e-Jahan Square reach an elevation of 42 m. The huge one-piece marble and other slabs of stone, besides the intricate tile work and adornments prove extremely spectacular views of this mosque.


Sheikh Lotfollah Mosque:

This mosque is another masterpiece of architecture and tile work of the 16th century which was constructed by a decree issued by Shah Abbas I and took a period of 18 years to be completed. The architect and mason of this structure was Ostad Mohammad Reza Isfahani. Inside tile work decorations of the plinth to the top are covered with mosaic tiles. In terms of the architectural grandeur of the mosque, foreign archaeologists believe: “It can hardly be considered a product of human hands.” Sheikh Lotfollah was one of the great pious in the Shia sect, in what is known as Lebanon today. At the invitation of Shah Abbas I, he came to reside in Isfahan. This place was constructed in honor of this great man who led the prayers and preached in this mosque.


(Al-Jum’a) Mosque:

Friday mosque is one of the historical monuments of the post-Islamic period in Iran which was constructed in the 4th century A.H and was expanded during Seljuk, al_Muzaffar and Shah Abbas I periods. Anywhere in the mosque, apart from the different styles of architecture, various types of poetry and prose lines are visible. This mosque is a complex of buildings and artistic masterpieces of the post-Islamic period in Iran.


Ali Qapu:

This palace which is a unique example of palace architecture in the Safavid era was constructed under the order of Shah Abbas I in the early 11th century A.H. The monarch received special envoys in this palace and held his audience here. There are five floors in this palace and each floor has its special decorations. During the reign of Shah Abbas II, a royal parlor (Shah Neshin) was added to the main building and the sovereign and his guests watched polo, illuminations, fire-works and the dramatics that took place in the Nagsh-e-Jahan Square from the halls of this elegant palace. This palace was also called ‘Daulat Khaneh-e-Mobarakeh Nagsh-e-Jahan’ and the ‘Daulat Khaneh Palace’. Its unique archaic architecture is related to the Safavid era.


The Chehel Sutun:

The Chehel Sotune Palace and its garden cover an area of approximately 67,000 sq. m. This palace was constructed during the reign of Shah Abbas I and a building was established in the middle of this garden. Shah Abbas II was also responsible for additions to this palace. The reflection of the twenty pillars of the hall in the pool opposite the palace brings about a conception of forty pillars. But in fact the number of “Forty” represents the quantity and multitude in Iran and the reason for which the mentioned building is called Chehel Sotun is the great number of the pillars in this palace.


Hasht Behesht Palace:

The historical edifice of Hast Behesht, an example of residential palaces of the last kings of the Safavid dynasty, was constructed during the reign of Shah Soleiman Safavid in 1080 A.H. Tile work of the building representing different kinds of birds, wild animals and reptiles which are the remnants of this palace, can be noted. Today, only a minor portion of the grounds remains. However, the historical palace is still a valuable and interesting monument. A park has been built around it after the Revolution.


Chahar Bagh School:
Chahar Bagh School, also known as Madraseh-ye Madar-e Shah (The King-mother’s School) is the last architectural masterpiece of the Safavid era. This school was constructed for theological studies, late in the reign of Shah Soltan Hossain Safavid in the years 1116-1126 AH. In terms of tile work, Chahar Bagh School contains various types of tile works which have turned it into a unique building. In fact, the school is known as the Museum of Tiling of Isfahan. King’s mother had a large caravansary built nearby, which was the most luxurious passenger accommodation about three centuries ago. This caravansary has recently been rebuilt as the most famous luxury hotel in Iran, Abbasi Hotel. The architecture structure of this hotel is spectacular and unique in the world.


Chahar Bagh Boulevard:

Isfahan was chosen as the capital of Iran during the reign of Shah-Abbas I in 1006 A.H. From that time, many considerable activities started for constructing palaces, bridges and historical mosques in order to decorate the capital. Constructing a boulevard like Chahar Bagh was also taken place in this year under the command of Safavid king. Chahar Bagh Boulevard is a historical broad tree-covered avenue which connects the north of the city from Darvaze Dolat (across the current mayoral palace) to south (Darvaze Shiraz).


Si-o-se Pol:
This bridge is a unique masterpiece of the reign of Shah Abbas I. It was constructed under the supervision and expense of Allah Verdi Khan, one of his famous commanders. This bridge is approximately 300 m. in length and 14 m. in width and is the longest bridge on the Zayandeh Rud River which was constructed in 1005 A.H. The Armenians used to hold special festivities near this bridge in the Safavid period. Julfa Armenians held “Khaj-Shouyan” ceremony around this bridge. This bridge is one of the masterpieces in bridge construction in Iran and the world.


Khaju Bridge (Shahi Bridge):

This bridge took its foundation in the late Timurid period, and was constructed according to what it is currently in 1060 AH, under the orders of Shah Abbas II. There is a structure in the center of the bridge, known as the Beglarbegi construction which is still standing with painting decorations on the top. The same was used as a temporary residence for the royal family. The name of this bridge is a distorted version of the word ‘Khajeh’ which was a title for great personalities in the Safavid era.


Shahrestan Bridge:

This bridge is one of the oldest bridges on the Zayandeh Rud River. Its current structure remains from Sassani era but it dates back to Archamenian era. It has been renovated in later periods of Deilamian and Saljoghian. Located in the old district of Jay, it has a spectacular architecture. Shahrestan Bridge is one the ancient bridges located about 4 km east of Isfahan. It is possible to pass the bridge from two sides: One, from Moshtagh and Sarooyeh streets and Ashraf hillside, the other from Dalan Behesht. There are woods and gardens and summer flats on both sides of the bridge.


Marnan Bridge:

Marnan Bridge which has originally named “Marbin”, adopted from Avesta word “Mehrbin”. It has known as Marnan during the last 15 centuries of Islamic history of Iran. This bridge is located on the western extreme of Isfahan. The current shape of the bridge with decoration of the Safavid structure is still firmed, but repaired repeatedly.


Pol-e-Joui or Choobi (Joui Bridge):

This bridge is narrow in width and 147 m. in length. It was constructed in the reign of Shah Abbas II in 1065 A.H. The bridge was not used by ordinary people. It only connected the royal gardens on the northern and southern banks of the river. Besides, it was used by the Safavid kings, their courtiers, noble families and guests who wanted to meet Shah Abbas II (in the magnificent buildings of this garden which are not remained today).


Vank Cathedral:

The Vank Church is one of the most famous churches in the Jolfa vicinity of Isfahan. The construction of this church commenced in the reign of Shah Abbas II in 1065 A.H and was completed in 1074 A.H. The interior of the church is richly decorated with painting decorations, interesting tile works and beautiful oil paintings of Jesus Christ’s life. Except for the religious paintings revealing an Italian and Netherlands touch, the type of its architecture and all the other decorations of this church are Iranian.


Manar Jonban (the swinging minaret):

This structure comprises of a mausoleum and two minarets, constructed on the tomb of ‘Amoo Abdollah’ a reputed personality of the 8th century A.H. The construction of Manar Jonban is based on Mongol architecture and there are tile works remained of that era. The two minarets were added later in an unknown date, but probably at the end of the Safavid era. It is extremely interesting to note that on shaking one minaret, not only does the other move, but that the structure itself sways.


Atashgah (Fire Temple):

The Atashgah of Isfahan, the top of which is made of thick and hard brick, is a Sassanid-era archaeological complex located on a hill of the same name about eight kilometers west of Isfahan. According to the historians, the Atashgah was one of the most famous fire temples in Isfahan. Although it is difficult to determine the date of the final structure, what is certain is not newer than the Sassanid period. On a low mountain about twenty kilometers west of Isfahan and in the lovely plain named Qorb overlooking the Zayandeh Rud River, remains of an old building are still left which dates back to probably the Parthian era or Sassanid period.


Thakht-e Foulad:

After Vadi Al Salaam cemetery in Najaf, ancient cemetery of Qom, Sheikhan Tomb and the other cemeteries of sacred shrines, Thakht-e Foulad cemetery is the most venerable, honored and prestigious tombs and cemeteries of not only Iran but also in all the Shia-residet cities. The existence of Lesan Al Arz which tells about the beginning of the creation and the Great Yousha Tomb, one of the greatest prophets of Bani Israel which dates back to more than two thousand years ago in this holy territory are the privileges of this part land and cemetery.


Old Qaisarieh Bazaar:

Qaisarieh Bazaar was one of the largest and most luxurious shopping malls in the Safavid era. This bazaar which is now the greatest supplier of handicrafts in Isfahan was constructed in 1029 A.H on the north side of the Imam Square. This bazaar used to be a center of selling precious fabrics during the Safavid dynasty and foreign companies were also trading there. The entrance to the bazaar is through a majestic gateway which is decorated with paintings and mosaic tile works representing two archers with lion torso and dragon’s tail. There are two platforms situated at the either side of the entrance gateway on which the goldsmiths used to represent their goods for sale in the old days.


Bazaar of Isfahan:

Grand Bazaar:is a historical market located in Isfahan, Iran, also known as “Qeysarriyeh Bazaar”It was originally constructed during the 11th century.


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